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January 15, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: , Science, Health Science, Endocrinology
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Section D Endocrine Disruption

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Endocrine Disruption !  Silent Spring !  By Rachel Carson, 1962 !  Credited with launch of the environmental movement !  Pesticides, particularly DDT !  Our Stolen Future !  By Theo Colburn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson !  Called attention to man-made chemicals in the environment that threaten health in humans and wildlife by disrupting the action of hormones •  Such chemicals have been called endocrine disruptors


Environmental Endocrine Disruptors: Definition !  An endocrine disruptor is an exogenous chemical substance or mixture that alters the structure or function(s) of the endocrine system and causes adverse effects at the level of: !  Organism and its progeny !  Populations !  Subpopulations


Environmental Endocrine Disruptors !  Effects on wildlife !  Alligators: abnormal gonad development and sex hormone !  Female phenotype in male fish, frogs !  Effects on humans !  Cancer? •  Increased breast cancer risk? !  Reproductive/developmental? •  Testicular dysgenesis syndrome •  Low birth weight !  Effects of combinations of environmental chemicals


Environmental Endocrine Disruptors !  1996: Congress passed the Food Quality Protection Act and amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act !  Both laws contained provisions requiring screening and testing of chemicals and pesticides for possible endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife !  Estrogens (agonist/antagonist) !  Androgens !  Thyroid hormones !  Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) !  Screening program


Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on the Human Reproductive System

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EDCs that Have Effects on the Male Reproductive System

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EDCs that Have Effects on the Female Reproductive System

Source: (2009). Endocrine Reviews, 30: 293–342.

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