Download Osteoporosis in the elderly & Public Health

January 15, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: , Science, Health Science, Geriatrics
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Osteoporosis Educational Series, Lecture 1of 3: A Public Health Problem of Older Age Nahid Rianon, M.D., Dr.P.H. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Goal and Objectives GOAL: The goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the public health importance of osteoporosis as a disease of old age and the clinical definition of osteoporosis LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of this presentation, attendees will be able to – Learn the clinical definition of osteoporosis. – Describe the health impact of osteoporotic fractures from an individual to health care system level. – Identify the generally recommended DEXA site to diagnose osteoporosis. 2

Pre Quiz Question 1 of 5

Approximately how much is spent annually for health care related to osteoporosis and associated fractures in the USA? (pick the one that best fits the answer)

a) More than $20 billion per year b) About $7 billion per year c) About $100 million per year d) Less than 5 billion per year

Pre Quiz Question 2 of 5

Which of the following is the MOST common site for fracture for age related bone loss or osteoporosis in the elderly population? (pick the one that best fits the answer)

a) Ribs b) Hip c) Vertebrae d) Tibia

Pre Quiz Question 3 of 5

Which one of the following statements best fits the clinical criteria for definition of osteoporosis due to age related bone loss? a) A T-score of -2.5 for spine or femur neck bone mineral density (BMD) b) A vertebral fracture in a 25 year old man due to a fall from the 4th floor of a building c) A family history of hip fracture in the mother d) A normal chest x-ray reporting osteopenic changes in bones

Pre Quiz Question 4 of 5

Which of the following sites is a generally recommended site for DEXA scan to diagnose osteoporosis? a) Heel b) Wrist c) Hip d) Finger

Pre Quiz Question 5 of 5

Almost every elderly person recovers to their baseline functional state after a hip fracture. a) True b) False

Osteoporosis in the Elderly

Osteoporosis & related fractures - important public health problems of old age

~10 million Americans suffers from osteoporosis

~34 million are at risk

More than 2 million fractures in the USA in 2005 were attributable to osteoporosis   

547,000 vertebral fractures 297,000 hip fractures 397,000 wrist fractures

Osteoporotic Fractures

For Women:  Incidence of fractures per year exceeds that of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and breast cancer combined

For Men:  Fracture risk is higher than that of prostate cancer 

~1:2 Caucasian women ≥ 50 years experience a fracture in their lifetimes  

1 in 3 for vertebral fractures 1 in 6 for hip fracture

21% ≥ 50 years will experience a fracture

Osteoporotic Fractures: Where and How 

Common sites: 

Vertebral body, femur neck & wrists

Fractures without much force or any trauma: 

Turning in bed, fall from a standing height

Osteoporosis and Health Care Events

Health Care Cost ~$22 billion is spent annually for osteoporosis and related fracture in the USA ~$7 billion is spent annually for breast cancer in the USA

Osteoporosis and Quality of Life Fractures can decrease quality of life:  Physical: pain, compressed abdomen, spinal deformity  Functional: decreased mobility  Psychosocial: depression  Rate of recurrent vertebral fracture after the initial one ~5-20%

Osteoporosis and Quality of Life If one survives a hip fracture — ~50% with hip fractures will never walk without assistance ~25% will require long-term care

Osteoporosis: Measure of Bone Health

Revised definition: Compromised bone strength that increases risk of fracture NIH Consensus Conference 2000 

Bone Strength is characterized by  

Bone density and Other bone qualities, e .g., micro-architecture influenced by bone remodeling, bone turnover, mineralization and other factors that are more difficult to quantify, such as “damage accumulation”

Clinical Diagnosis of Osteoporosis Usual sites for DEXA is lumbar spine and left hip DEXA scan - Left hip

DEXA scan - Lumbar spine

Osteoporosis = A T- score of
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