January 15, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: , Science, Biology, Cell Biology, DNA

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IB Biology 1 Q3 Test Guide – 1314 Estimated number of questions per topic is provided – 80 total questions Characteristics of Life - 1        

List characteristics common to all forms of life. List the levels of biological organization from simple to complex, with an example structure found at each level. Define and give an example of an emergent property. List and provide evidence for the three main parts to the cell theory. List and describe the four shared structures of all cells. Explain how the cells in multicellular organisms become specialized. Define homeostasis and metabolism and give an example of each. Compare “response to environment” with “adaptation to environment” giving an example of each.

Biostatistics - 4                  

Identify variables (MV, RV, CV) in descriptions of experiments. Explain the need for a control group when experiments are performed. Know how to calculate range and mean given a set of data. What is standard deviation and why is it used? How is standard deviation calculated? The equation will be provided. Based on a graph with standard deviation error bars, when are results significantly / not significantly different? What is a T-test and why is it used? How is t-test calculated? The equation will be provided. Determine the uncertainty of various measurement tools (beaker, flask, ruler, watch…) Measure with precision (the correct number of digits). Determine which type of graph to use (bar, line, pie, histogram) given various data sets. Plot the MV and RV on the appropriate graph axis. What is the difference between a correlation and causation? Understand the types of correlation (direct and indirect). Determine the significance of a correlation using a Pearson’s R coefficient table. Define the word “significant” in relation to statistics. Contrast the null and alternative hypothesis’s of a significance test. Convert between milli- and mico-.

Prokaryotic Cells - 3       

Draw, identify and know the functions of the following structures of a prokaryotic cell: cell membrane, nucleoid, plasmid, cytoplasm, ribosome, cell wall, pili, capsule, flagella Describe the arrangement of prokaryotic DNA. Sketch and describe the process of binary fission. Explain the role of prokaryotes in the formation of an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Contrast autotroph and heterotroph. Contrast chemotrophs with phototrophs. Compare anaerobes, facultative aerobes and obligate aerobes.

Eukaryotic Cells – 3 

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Contrast prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells in terms of o Size o Structures found inside the cells o Location and structure of DNA o Example organisms Identify and describe the structure and function of the following: o Cytoplasm (including cytosol and cytoskeleton) o Nucleus (including envelope, pores, nucleolus and chromatin) o Mitochondria o Chloroplasts o Ribosomes o Vacuole o Lysosomes o Centrioles o Extracellular components Describe how organelles of the endomembrane system function together to produce and secrete proteins: o Rough ER o Smooth ER o Golgi o Vesicles Compare the structures found in plant and animal cells. Describe the evidence for the endosymbiotic theory.

Microscopy and drawings – 1    

How is total magnification calculated? What is field of view and how is it calculated? How can you estimate the size of an object under the microscope? Describe how to determine how much larger a biological drawing is compared to “real life” (linear magnification)

Cell Size – 1      

How is SA of a cube calculated? How is volume of a cube calculated? How is the SA: volume ratio calculated? What happens to the SA: V ratio when the size of the cell increases? What does the amount of surface area dictate for the cell? What does the amount of volume dictate for the cell? Why are cells small? List some adaptations of cells to maximize the SA: volume ratio.

Cell Membrane Structure and Function – 3           

What is the function of the cell membrane? Describe the meanings of the terms fluid and mosaic in the “fluid mosaic” model of membrane structure. Describe the structure of the phospholipid, including a phosphate and glycerol head and fatty acid tails. Explain the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and describe how these properties lead to a phospholipid bilayer. Contrast integral and peripheral proteins. List at least four functions of membrane bound proteins. Contrast the two types of transport proteins: carriers and channels. Cite evidence that the phospholipids and proteins in the membrane are fluid (meaning they can drift within the membrane). Why are some fatty acids considered saturated and others considered unsaturated? What effect does being saturated or unsaturated have one the fluidity of the membrane? Describe the function of cholesterol molecules in the membrane.

Biochemical Basics –3          

Describe the structure of an atom (in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons). Contrast ion with atom. Define anion and cation. Describe the functions of the most common elements found in living organisms. What is meant by “trace elements?” What are common trace elements in living organisms? Contrast covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds. Describe condensation (dehydration synthesis) and hydrolysis reactions. List the four major types of bio-molecules. Define monomer and polymer. Explain how calorimetry can be used to determine the amount of energy stored in a molecule.

Water - 3        

Write the molecular formula for water and draw the atomic structure of the molecule. Describe the cause and effect of the polar nature of water. Describe where and how water is able to form hydrogen bonds. Contrast adhesion with cohesion. Why does it take so much energy to change the temperature of water? What are the benefits to life of waters high heat capacity? Why is water such a good solvent? What types of molecules will it dissolve? Why is the transparency of water important for all life?

Carbohydrates - 2       

Draw the ring structure of glucose, ribose and deoxyribose. List two examples for each of monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide. State one function for each example monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide. What is the generalized chemical formula of the carbohydrates (ratio between the numbers of C, O and H)? Contrast the structure and functions of cellulose, chitin, starch and glycogen. Draw the condensation (dehydration synthesis) reaction for the formation of a disaccharide. Describe the function of amylase in carbohydrate digestions.

Lipids - 3            

Draw the structure of glycerol and a generalized fatty acid. State three functions of lipids. List and identify the molecular structure of the common types of lipids. Identify and describe the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. From what sources are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids commonly found? Identify and describe the difference between cis- and trans- fats. List and identify the major parts of the phospholipid molecule. Describe why the head of a phospholipid is hydrophilic. Identify a monoglyceride, diglyceride and triglyceride. Identify the sterol fats based on their molecular structure. Compare the energy content in fats to the energy in carbohydrates. Draw the condensation (dehydration synthesis) reaction for the formation of a triglyceride.

DNA Structure - 2         

Draw the basic structure of a DNA nucleotide. Draw the molecular structure of deoxyribose and number the carbon atoms. Identify the four bases of DNA based on the numbers of rings (purines vs. pyrimidines) and the number of hydrogen bonds it can form. Outline how the DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand (i.e., to which carbon atoms of the deoxyribose are the phosphates and bases attached?) Know which bases are capable of complimentary pairing. How many bases are there per complete turn of the helix? Outline the structure of nucleosomes, referring to the correct number of histone proteins. Describe what is meant by “anti-parallel.” Identify the 5’ and 3’ ends of a DNA molecule.

DNA Biotechnology - 4             

What are restriction enzymes? Where are they found naturally? What is their role in nature? What is a restriction site? How are restriction enzymes named? Contrast sticky vs. blunt ends. What is PCR? Why is it done? What is electrophoresis? For what purposes is it used? Based on what properties are fragments separated? What are the functions of the buffer and loading dye? Read a DNA fingerprint to determine relatedness or forensic guilt. List and describe six applications of the information gathered via the HGP. Why are computer tools necessary for analyzing DNA sequences? What were the major goals of the human genome project? What organizations were primarily responsible for the HGP?

DNA Replication - 6        

Explain what it means to say that DNA replication is semi-conservative. Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA. Explain what is meant by DNA replication occurring in a 5' to 3' direction. Explain the process of DNA replication in eukaryotes including the role of enzymes (helicase, DNA polymerase III, RNA primase, DNA polymerase I, and DNA ligase), single stranded binding proteins, Okazaki fragments and deoxynucleoside triphosphates. What is an Origin of Replication? Contrast the number of origins in prokaryotic cells to the number in eukaryotic cells. Why is replication different on the two strands of the DNA helix? Contrast replication on the leading strand with replication on the lagging strand. What are primers and why are they needed during replication?

Cell Cycle - 6          

Chromatin vs. chromosomes – what is difference, when is it found in the cell? Why the cell must divide to create more cells? What are the three phases of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells? What percent of the cell cycle does interphase make up? What happens during the G1, S and G2 phases of interphase? Sketch and describe the events happening during each phase of mitosis, including descriptions of the amount of DNA and chromosomes in the cell What are kinetochores and kinetochore microtubules? How is cytokinesis different between plant and animal cells? In animal cells, how is the cleavage furrow formed? In plant cells, how is the cell plate formed? When are the three checkpoints during the cell cycle? What occurs at each of the 3 checkpoints during the cell cycle?

Transcription - 6          

Define gene. What are the size of human genome in nucleotides, number of protein coding genes in the human genome, and the % of the human genome that codes for protein? Contrast highly reparative DNA sequences with unique sequences. List and describe functions of non-protein encoding DNA. Describe the initiation of transcription, including the role of the promoter, transcription factors, the TATA box and RNA polymerase. Describe elongation of transcription, including the role of nucleotide triphosphates and the direction of transcription. Describe termination of transcription, including the role of the terminator. Contrast the functions of the sense and antisense strands of DNA. Contrast the structure and functions of DNA with RNA. Describe the structure and function of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.

RNA Processing - 4      

What is RNA processing? In what type of cell does it occur? Where in the cell does it happen? Describe three structural modifications to the mRNA before it leaves the nucleus. What are the functions of the polyA tail and guanine cap? Compare introns with exons. Describe the function of the spliceosome. What is alternative splicing? What is the benefit to an organism?

Translation - 6  

Define translation. Contrast codon with anticodon.

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Describe how to use the genetic code table. Provide the meaning of degenerate and universal in relation to the genetic code. Explain ribosome structure and function, including a description of the three binding sites and a comparison of bound and free ribosomes. Describe the steps of initiation of translation, including the roles of the large and small ribosomal subunit, mRNA, tRNA, and the start codon. Describe elongation of translation, including the role of tRNA, the formation of peptide bonds, and the direction of movement of the ribosomes. Describe steps of termination of translation, including role of the stop codons and the release factor. What are polysomes? What is their benefit in a cell? Describe the structure and function of the enzyme amino-acyl tRNA synthase.

Protein Structure - 6 Identify whether an amino acid is polar, non-polar or ionic, given its structure. Draw the generalized amino acid structure, identifying the amino group, the carboxyl group, the radical group, and the alpha carbon. Define what is meant by “essential amino acid.” Explain how the characteristics of R groups (polar, non-polar, and ionic) affect their behavior in protein folding. Describe polypeptide chain formation in terms of the formation of peptide bonds and condensation reactions. Determine the number of peptide bonds given the number of amino acids in a polypeptide. Describe the primary structure of a protein, including the type of bonding involved. Describe the secondary structure of a protein, including the type of bonding involved. Describe the tertiary structure of a protein, including the types of bonding involved. Describe the quaternary structure of a protein. Explain the role of chaperones in protein folding. Contrast the structure of globular proteins with the structure of fibrous proteins. Define denaturation and list conditions that can cause it to happen.

Protein Function - 4         

Contrast the generalized function of globular proteins with generalized function of fibrous proteins. List and describe examples of fibrous proteins used in structure and support. List and describe examples of fibrous proteins used for movement and contraction. List and describe examples of globular proteins used for storage. List and describe examples of globular proteins used for transport. List and describe examples of globular proteins used as hormones. List and describe examples of globular proteins used as receptors. List and describe examples of globular proteins used in defense against disease. List and describe examples of globular proteins used as enzymes.

Mutation - 4        

Define gene mutation. Describe the two major types of point mutations. Describe the three possible effects of a base substitution mutation. Explain an example of a disease caused by a missense mutation (either sickle cell or CF). Describe the effects of an insertion or deletion mutation in the DNA. Contrast spontaneous with induced mutations, providing an example for each. In general, how and when are DNA mutations able to be repaired? Contrast the effects of a mutation in a somatic cell with one in a gamete.

Genetic Engineering - 5         

What is recombinant DNA? What is transformation? What are vectors? What are common vectors in biotechnology? Describe the procedural sequence for creating recombinant DNA and inserting it into a bacterium. What enzymes are needed to create recombinant DNA? Why are antibiotic resistant plasmids chosen as vectors? How are bacteria that were successfully transformed identified? List current or possible applications of recombinant DNA technology and their pros/cons